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As everyone began to celebrate Asura's success, Indra, jealous of his brother and further manipulated by Black Zetsu , attacked the village and chose to fight Asura for the title of successor while also seeking revenge on his father and brother for denying him his birthright.
Asura pleaded for Indra to reconsider, but his words fell on deaf ears, since Indra sternly believed that power and force were the only true means to ensure peace and order were obtained.
Realising this fight was inevitable, Hagoromo instructed the villagers to pass on their chakra to Asura, allowing his power to fully mature.
Several years passed and Asura married Kanna, with whom he had two sons and a daughter. When Hagoromo was on his deathbed, he informed his son about a final meeting with Indra, who vowed to undo all his father's work, even in a following life.
Asura comforted his father and vowed to reincarnate with Indra to continue their feud, as he hoped they would one day find a peaceful resolution.
Indra's eventual descendants — the Uchiha clan — would feud with Asura's eventual descendants — the Senju clan. Neither clan knew why or how their hatred of the other came to be.
In the anime, as a young child, Asura was a carefree and loving child who looked up to and happily played with his older brother.
Even though he was the son of the famed Sage of Six Paths, Asura was born with no talent and thus could not accomplish much on his own.
Instead, he valued depending on and cooperating with others. In the anime, as a child, he was shown to be impatient and insecure at his limited prowess, unlike his older brother and father.
As he never lost sight of his principles and the love he had for others, he believed love to be the key to peace. When Indra started to deviate from their father's philosophy and teachings by focusing on power to maintain order and rebuffing help from others, Asura, although he loved his brother dearly and was reluctant to challenge him, felt he had no choice but to fight Indra.
Before any violent acts would occur between them Asura tried to reach out to Indra in hope the latter would draw away from his hatred but was unsuccessful.
Despite the rivalry and hatred between the brothers, Asura always loved and respected his older brother and only wished to be reincarnated over and over again to battle Indra so as to eventually end the feud between them, a dream which would be realised in Naruto and Sasuke.
Asura had short, spiky brown hair — two locks of which were wrapped in bandages framing either side of his face in a similar manner to his brother.
He possessed stern facial features. In his later years, he had a more pronounced jaw-line and short goatee similar to his father.
He wore a light-coloured kimono with magatama adorned around the collar. The kimono was held closed by a dark-coloured sash. Underneath, he wore a black full-body suit.
Originally, Asura was very untalented and showed no special capacities. Later however, he proved himself a late-bloomer as through years of gruelling hard work and dedication, Asura developed tremendous skill and awakened his own inherited power: This ultimately made him on par with might and prowess of his genius older brother, Indra.
He was also a capable leader, obtaining countless loyal followers. After inheriting his father's power, his might proved able to decisively defeat Indra.
Through his inherit power, Asura gained a remarkably powerful life-force and physical energy. From this, he had tremendous stamina and resilience, enough to single-handedly and with no rest dig a massive hole in search of water.
In battle, he is highly proficient in taijutsu. While a much slower learner than Indra, over time, Asura greatly improved in this art.
Ultimately, he became very skilled and knowledgeable enough to pass these teachings on to others. In the anime, learning from Indra's application of hand seals as a child, he became very knowledgeable of the five elements, to the point of being able to teach others to use their respective affinity.
He seems to particularly excel in Wind Release , able to manifest a blade of wind to cut through bedrock or surround himself with it to defend from attacks, which was strong enough to repel Indra's Lightning Release.
By the time he fought Indra, in the anime, he manifested the Wood Release , which by extension could also use Earth and Water Release. When combining it with senjutsu , he could create a gigantic structures to attack with.
With the power entrusted to him by his father, Asura gained access to the Six Paths Senjutsu , allowing him to augment himself and his various techniques.
In this state, he could fly and manifest a giant three-faced, six-armed avatar. He could also manifest nine Truth-Seeking Balls , which could be shaped into various tools and constructs, able to battle back Indra's Susanoo with it.
He could also use them in unison with his battle avatar, which likewise grew proportionate to the structure. Though his body was destroyed, Asura's chakra would continue to exist.
His chakra reincarnated into various individuals throughout history. Hashirama possessed what the people of Konoha called the Will of Fire , which many people believed in.
With the help of Madara Uchiha , the reincarnation of Indra at the time, Hashirama created the very first ninja village, Konohagakure, and helped set up the ninja system.
Episode I — The Phantom Menace. In late , Paramount became the first major studio to distribute movies to theaters in digital format, eliminating 35mm film entirely.
Since then the demand of movies to be developed onto digital format rather than 35mm has increased drastically. As digital technology improved, movie studios began increasingly shifting towards digital cinematography.
Since the s, digital cinematography has become the dominant form of cinematography after largely superseding film cinematography. The first film cameras were fastened directly to the head of a tripod or other support, with only the crudest kind of leveling devices provided, in the manner of the still-camera tripod heads of the period.
The earliest film cameras were thus effectively fixed during the shot, and hence the first camera movements were the result of mounting a camera on a moving vehicle.
Although listed under the general heading of "panoramas" in the sales catalogues of the time, those films shot straight forward from in front of a railway engine were usually specifically referred to as " phantom rides ".
In , Robert W. Paul had the first real rotating camera head made to put on a tripod, so that he could follow the passing processions of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee in one uninterrupted shot.
This device had the camera mounted on a vertical axis that could be rotated by a worm gear driven by turning a crank handle, and Paul put it on general sale the next year.
Shots taken using such a "panning" head were also referred to as "panoramas" in the film catalogues of the first decade of the cinema. This eventually led to the creation of a panoramic photo as well.
This had a glass roof and three glass walls constructed after the model of large studios for still photography, and it was fitted with thin cotton cloths that could be stretched below the roof to diffuse the direct ray of the sun on sunny days.
The soft overall light without real shadows that this arrangement produced, and which also exists naturally on lightly overcast days, was to become the basis for film lighting in film studios for the next decade.
Cinematography can begin with digital image sensor or rolls of film. Advancements in film emulsion and grain structure provided a wide range of available film stocks.
The selection of a film stock is one of the first decisions made in preparing a typical film production. Aside from the film gauge selection — 8 mm amateur , 16 mm semi-professional , 35 mm professional and 65 mm epic photography, rarely used except in special event venues — the cinematographer has a selection of stocks in reversal which, when developed, create a positive image and negative formats along with a wide range of film speeds varying sensitivity to light from ISO 50 slow, least sensitive to light to very fast, extremely sensitive to light and differing response to color low saturation , high saturation and contrast varying levels between pure black no exposure and pure white complete overexposure.
Advancements and adjustments to nearly all gauges of film create the "super" formats wherein the area of the film used to capture a single frame of an image is expanded, although the physical gauge of the film remains the same.
The larger the film gauge, the higher the overall image resolution clarity and technical quality.
The techniques used by the film laboratory to process the film stock can also offer a considerable variance in the image produced. By controlling the temperature and varying the duration in which the film is soaked in the development chemicals, and by skipping certain chemical processes or partially skipping all of them , cinematographers can achieve very different looks from a single film stock in the laboratory.
Some techniques that can be used are push processing , bleach bypass , and cross processing. Most of modern cinema uses digital cinematography and has no film stocks [ citation needed ] , but the cameras themselves can be adjusted in ways that go far beyond the abilities of one particular film stock.
They can provide varying degrees of color sensitivity, image contrast, light sensitivity and so on. One camera can achieve all the various looks of different emulsions.
Digital image adjustments such as ISO and contrast are executed by estimating the same adjustments that would take place if actual film were in use, and are thus vulnerable to the camera's sensor designers perceptions of various film stocks and image adjustment parameters.
Filters , such as diffusion filters or color effect filters, are also widely used to enhance mood or dramatic effects.
Most photographic filters are made up of two pieces of optical glass glued together with some form of image or light manipulation material between the glass.
In the case of color filters, there is often a translucent color medium pressed between two planes of optical glass. Color filters work by blocking out certain color wavelengths of light from reaching the film.
With color film, this works very intuitively wherein a blue filter will cut down on the passage of red, orange, and yellow light and create a blue tint on the film.
In black-and-white photography, color filters are used somewhat counter intuitively; for instance a yellow filter, which cuts down on blue wavelengths of light, can be used to darken a daylight sky by eliminating blue light from hitting the film, thus greatly underexposing the mostly blue sky while not biasing most human flesh tone.
Certain cinematographers, such as Christopher Doyle , are well known for their innovative use of filters.
Filters can be used in front of the lens or, in some cases, behind the lens for different effects. Christopher Doyle was a pioneer for increased usage of filters in movies.
He was highly respected throughout the cinema world. Lenses can be attached to the camera to give a certain look, feel, or effect by focus, color, etc.
As does the human eye , the camera creates perspective and spatial relations with the rest of the world. However, unlike one's eye, a cinematographer can select different lenses for different purposes.
Variation in focal length is one of the chief benefits. The focal length of the lens determines the angle of view and, therefore, the field of view.
Cinematographers can choose from a range of wide-angle lenses , "normal" lenses and long focus lenses , as well as macro lenses and other special effect lens systems such as borescope lenses.
Wide-angle lenses have short focal lengths and make spatial distances more obvious. A person in the distance is shown as much smaller while someone in the front will loom large.
On the other hand, long focus lenses reduce such exaggerations, depicting far-off objects as seemingly close together and flattening perspective.
The differences between the perspective rendering is actually not due to the focal length by itself, but by the distance between the subjects and the camera.
Therefore, the use of different focal lengths in combination with different camera to subject distances creates these different rendering.
Changing the focal length only while keeping the same camera position doesn't affect perspective but the camera angle of view only.
A zoom lens allows a camera operator to change his focal length within a shot or quickly between setups for shots.
As prime lenses offer greater optical quality and are "faster" larger aperture openings, usable in less light than zoom lenses, they are often employed in professional cinematography over zoom lenses.
Certain scenes or even types of filmmaking, however, may require the use of zooms for speed or ease of use, as well as shots involving a zoom move.
As in other photography, the control of the exposed image is done in the lens with the control of the diaphragm aperture. For proper selection, the cinematographer needs that all lenses be engraved with T-stop , not f-stop so that the eventual light loss due to the glass doesn't affect the exposure control when setting it using the usual meters.
The choice of the aperture also affects image quality aberrations and depth of field. Focal length and diaphragm aperture affect the depth of field of a scene — that is, how much the background, mid-ground and foreground will be rendered in "acceptable focus" only one exact plane of the image is in precise focus on the film or video target.
Depth of field not to be confused with depth of focus is determined by the aperture size and the focal distance. A large or deep depth of field is generated with a very small iris aperture and focusing on a point in the distance, whereas a shallow depth of field will be achieved with a large open iris aperture and focusing closer to the lens.
Depth of field is also governed by the format size. If one considers the field of view and angle of view, the smaller the image is, the shorter the focal length should be, as to keep the same field of view.
Then, the smaller the image is, the more depth of field is obtained, for the same field of view. Therefore, 70mm has less depth of field than 35mm for a given field of view, 16mm more than 35mm, and early video cameras, as well as most modern consumer level video cameras, even more depth of field than 16mm.
In Citizen Kane , cinematographer Gregg Toland and director Orson Welles used tighter apertures to create every detail of the foreground and background of the sets in sharp focus.
This practice is known as deep focus. Deep focus became a popular cinematographic device from the s onwards in Hollywood.
Today, the trend is for more shallow focus. To change the plane of focus from one object or character to another within a shot is commonly known as a rack focus.
Early in the transition to digital cinematography, the inability of digital video cameras to easily achieve shallow depth of field, due to their small image sensors, was initially an issue of frustration for film makers trying to emulate the look of 35mm film.
Optical adapters were devised which accomplished this by mounting a larger format lens which projected its image, at the size of the larger format, on a ground glass screen preserving the depth of field.
The adapter and lens then mounted on the small format video camera which in turn focused on the ground glass screen.
Digital SLR still cameras have sensor sizes similar to that of the 35mm film frame, and thus are able to produce images with similar depth of field.
The advent of video functions in these cameras sparked a revolution in digital cinematography, with more and more film makers adopting still cameras for the purpose because of the film-like qualities of their images.
More recently, more and more dedicated video cameras are being equipped with larger sensors capable of 35mm film-like depth of field. The aspect ratio of an image is the ratio of its width to its height.
This can be expressed either as a ratio of 2 integers, such as 4: Different ratios provide different aesthetic effects. Standards for aspect ratio have varied significantly over time.
During the silent era, aspect ratios varied widely, from square 1: However, from the s, silent motion pictures generally settled on the ratio of 4: The introduction of sound-on-film briefly narrowed the aspect ratio, to allow room for a sound stripe.
In , a new standard was introduced, the Academy ratio of 1. For years, mainstream cinematographers were limited to using the Academy ratio, but in the s, thanks to the popularity of Cinerama , widescreen ratios were introduced in an effort to pull audiences back into the theater and away from their home television sets.
These new widescreen formats provided cinematographers a wider frame within which to compose their images. Many different proprietary photographic systems were invented and utilized in the s to create widescreen movies, but one dominated film: The first commonly used anamorphic format was CinemaScope , which used a 2.
CinemaScope was used from to , but due to technical flaws in the design and its ownership by Fox, several third-party companies, led by Panavision 's technical improvements in the s, dominated the anamorphic cine lens market.
After the "widescreen wars" of the s, the motion-picture industry settled into 1. This is a cropped version of 1. Europe and Asia opted for 1.
Certain "epic" or adventure movies utilized the anamorphic 2. In the s, with the advent of high-definition video , television engineers created the 1.
Until that point, nothing had ever been originated in 1. Today, this is a standard for high-definition video and for widescreen television.
Light is necessary to create an image exposure on a frame of film or on a digital target CCD, etc.
The art of lighting for cinematography goes far beyond basic exposure, however, into the essence of visual storytelling.
Lighting contributes considerably to the emotional response an audience has watching a motion picture. The increased usage of filters can greatly impact the final image and affect the lighting.
Cinematography can not only depict a moving subject but can use a camera, which represents the audience's viewpoint or perspective, that moves during the course of filming.
This movement plays a considerable role in the emotional language of film images and the audience's emotional reaction to the action.
Techniques range from the most basic movements of panning horizontal shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like turning your head side-to-side and tilting vertical shift in viewpoint from a fixed position; like tipping your head back to look at the sky or down to look at the ground to dollying placing the camera on a moving platform to move it closer or farther from the subject , tracking placing the camera on a moving platform to move it to the left or right , craning moving the camera in a vertical position; being able to lift it off the ground as well as swing it side-to-side from a fixed base position , and combinations of the above.
Early cinematographers often faced problems that were not common to other graphic artists because of the element of motion.
Most cameras can also be handheld , that is held in the hands of the camera operator who moves from one position to another while filming the action.
Personal stabilizing platforms came into being in the late s through the invention of Garrett Brown , which became known as the Steadicam.
The Steadicam is a body harness and stabilization arm that connects to the camera, supporting the camera while isolating it from the operator's body movements.
After the Steadicam patent expired in the early s, many other companies began manufacturing their concept of the personal camera stabilizer.
This invention is much more common throughout the cinematic world today. From feature-length films to the evening news, more and more networks have begun to use a personal camera stabilizer.
The first special effects in the cinema were created while the film was being shot. These came to be known as " in-camera " effects.
Later, optical and digital effects were developed so that editors and visual effects artists could more tightly control the process by manipulating the film in post-production.
The movie The Execution of Mary Stuart shows an actor dressed as the queen placing her head on the execution block in front of a small group of bystanders in Elizabethan dress.
The executioner brings his axe down, and the queen's severed head drops onto the ground. This trick was worked by stopping the camera and replacing the actor with a dummy, then restarting the camera before the axe falls.
The two pieces of film were then trimmed and cemented together so that the action appeared continuous when the film was shown, thus creating an overall illusion and successfully laying the foundation for special effects.
This film shows a woman being made to vanish by using the same stop motion technique as the earlier Edison film. The other basic technique for trick cinematography involves double exposure of the film in the camera, which was first done by George Albert Smith in July in the UK.
Smith's The Corsican Brothers was described in the catalogue of the Warwick Trading Company , which took up the distribution of Smith's films in , thus:.
After indicating that he has been killed by a sword-thrust, and appealing for vengeance, he disappears. A 'vision' then appears showing the fatal duel in the snow.
To the Corsican's amazement, the duel and death of his brother are vividly depicted in the vision, and overcome by his feelings, he falls to the floor just as his mother enters the room.
The ghost effect was done by draping the set in black velvet after the main action had been shot, and then re-exposing the negative with the actor playing the ghost going through the actions at the appropriate point.
Likewise, the vision, which appeared within a circular vignette or matte , was similarly superimposed over a black area in the backdrop to the scene, rather than over a part of the set with detail in it, so that nothing appeared through the image, which seemed quite solid.